(Source: Flickr / rietje, via pinoy-culture)

fotojournalismus:

Filipino boys walk underneath the rainbow flag during the 2012 Philippine Pride March in Makati, south of Manila, Philippines on Saturday Dec. 8, 2012. In their statement, the event aims to highlight the Filipino Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered community’s fight for acceptance and rights within Philippine society.
[Credit : Aaron Favila/AP]

fotojournalismus:

Filipino boys walk underneath the rainbow flag during the 2012 Philippine Pride March in Makati, south of Manila, Philippines on Saturday Dec. 8, 2012. In their statement, the event aims to highlight the Filipino Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered community’s fight for acceptance and rights within Philippine society.

[Credit : Aaron Favila/AP]

unibersidadngpilipinas:

Calling all games and game developers, the buffers and the healers, the casuals and the hardcores! 
The Game Developers Association of the Philippines (GDAP) and UP’s very own Association for Computing Machinery (UP ACM) proudly present The Philippine Game Development Festival (PGDF), THE largest annual two-day event that celebrates and promotes the Philippine game development industry.
Tired of the games you have at home? Check out what gadgets and games we have in store for you at the Game Expo on the 7th of December! Or, better yet, why not learn some tips on how to make your own games by attending the game dev seminars and lectures on the 8th? Only the best lecturers will be present, so you wouldn’t want to miss it! (Does Unity3D ring a bell?)
Time-conscious? Don’t be. The festival’s events span from morning ‘til night. No rush. Just go.
Worried it’ll be held at a place too far? Stop worrying! All this fun and innovation is made available to you at the very accessible UP Diliman.
Interested? We know you are. More details are available here.
Don’t forget to like our Facebook page and to follow us on Twitter!

unibersidadngpilipinas:

Calling all games and game developers, the buffers and the healers, the casuals and the hardcores!

The Game Developers Association of the Philippines (GDAP) and UP’s very own Association for Computing Machinery (UP ACM) proudly present The Philippine Game Development Festival (PGDF), THE largest annual two-day event that celebrates and promotes the Philippine game development industry.

Tired of the games you have at home? Check out what gadgets and games we have in store for you at the Game Expo on the 7th of December! Or, better yet, why not learn some tips on how to make your own games by attending the game dev seminars and lectures on the 8th? Only the best lecturers will be present, so you wouldn’t want to miss it! (Does Unity3D ring a bell?)

Time-conscious? Don’t be. The festival’s events span from morning ‘til night. No rush. Just go.

Worried it’ll be held at a place too far? Stop worrying! All this fun and innovation is made available to you at the very accessible UP Diliman.

Interested? We know you are. More details are available here.

Don’t forget to like our Facebook page and to follow us on Twitter!

(via pinoy-culture)

kapwacollective:

“A butterfly knife, called a balisong in the Philippines, and sometimes known as a Batangas knife, is a folding pocket knife with two handles counter-rotating around the tang such that, when closed, the blade is concealed within grooves in the handles. In the hands of a trained user, the knife blade can be brought to bear quickly using one hand.  Balisongs are still handmade in the traditional manner in the Philippines. Such knives are referred to as Filipino handmade (FHM).” 
- from the article, The Batangas Balisong Knife
Come learn with us.  - Kapwa Collective
Blog: kapwacollective.tumblr.comFacebook: www.facebook.com/kapwacollective

kapwacollective:

“A butterfly knife, called a balisong in the Philippines, and sometimes known as a Batangas knife, is a folding pocket knife with two handles counter-rotating around the tang such that, when closed, the blade is concealed within grooves in the handles. In the hands of a trained user, the knife blade can be brought to bear quickly using one hand.  Balisongs are still handmade in the traditional manner in the Philippines. Such knives are referred to as Filipino handmade (FHM).” 

- from the article, The Batangas Balisong Knife

Come learn with us.  - Kapwa Collective

Blog: kapwacollective.tumblr.com
Facebook: www.facebook.com/kapwacollective

(via biyuti)

(Source: isacc.org.ph, via pinoy-culture)

(Source: Flickr / silayandancecompany, via pinoy-culture)

ellobofilipino:

In the Philippines, the new Cybercrime Prevention Law contains provisions which may act as a prior restraint to freedom of speech. It also provides that law enforcement agencies can place an online account on “surveillance” for suspected violations of the  law even without a court order - a clear violation of the standards of due process supposedly observed in democratic societies. The court order is only required when they have enough evidence against the owner of that account.
While the law is also intended against cybersex, identity theft and child-pornography, the provisions on online libel (inserted a controversial Senator) became a flash point for journalists, bloggers, lawyers and free speech advocates. The odd part though was that the law was signed with the ambiguous and contentious provisions which were only pointed out by Filipinos online.
And oh, according to the lone Senator who opposed the law, even a “like” on a Facebook update or post may make you liable to online libel. So, yeah, be careful with what you “like” on Facebook, retweet on Twitter or even reblog on Tumblr.

ellobofilipino:

In the Philippines, the new Cybercrime Prevention Law contains provisions which may act as a prior restraint to freedom of speech. It also provides that law enforcement agencies can place an online account on “surveillance” for suspected violations of the  law even without a court order - a clear violation of the standards of due process supposedly observed in democratic societies. The court order is only required when they have enough evidence against the owner of that account.

While the law is also intended against cybersex, identity theft and child-pornography, the provisions on online libel (inserted a controversial Senator) became a flash point for journalists, bloggers, lawyers and free speech advocates. The odd part though was that the law was signed with the ambiguous and contentious provisions which were only pointed out by Filipinos online.

And oh, according to the lone Senator who opposed the law, even a “like” on a Facebook update or post may make you liable to online libel. So, yeah, be careful with what you “like” on Facebook, retweet on Twitter or even reblog on Tumblr.

(via green-street-politics)

fotojournalismus:

A worker sleeps on a hammock above a flooded street during heavy downpour brought by Typhoon Sanba in Quezon City, metro Manila September 15, 2012.  
[Credit : Cheryl Ravelo/Reuters]

fotojournalismus:

A worker sleeps on a hammock above a flooded street during heavy downpour brought by Typhoon Sanba in Quezon City, metro Manila September 15, 2012.  

[Credit : Cheryl Ravelo/Reuters]

ellobofilipino:

iwriteasiwrite:


Archaeologists have unearthed remnants of what they believe is a 1,000-year-old village on a jungle-covered mountaintop in the Philippines with limestone coffins of a type never before found in this Southeast Asian nation, officials said Thursday….
The discovery of the rectangular tombs, which were carved into limestone outcrops jutting from the forest ground, is important because it is the first indication that Filipinos at that time practiced a more advanced burial ritual than previously thought and that they used metal tools to carve the coffins.
 - Philippine Tomb Discovery At 1,000-Year-Old Village Show Unexpected Advances

This is some heady archaeological stuff. I mean, just absolutely amazing. I hope this gets a lot of play in our media, this needs to be prominently touted.
Discoveries like this basically rewrite what we understand about our archipelagic history. They are important in uncovering who we are and where we came from. The fact that there were hitherto unknown techniques in use is astonishing. Looking forward to the published study of the find.
The exciting part is, there is much more to be find throughout the country. We are an archaeological treasure trove, we just need the institutional support to explore.
The sad part of the story is the mention that most of our discovered archaeological sites are being destroyed by grave robbers and looters. These sites form an integral part of our national patrimony, they belong to every Filipino and help deepen our understanding of our heritage.
And it’s just fucking cool.

Whoah! All the Philippine history learned through the years will have to be unlearned and updated. I agree, this will radically change our understanding of our past, particularly the pre-Spanish period.
This reminds me of a long discussion back then on what parts of the Philippines might have been before the Spanish expeditions came. Sadly though, I cannot seem to find those exchanges in my archives anymore.
Anyway, like what we agreed on, historical records from our neighboring countries might reinforce knowledge derived from digs like this. But, before the research comes the funding… I wonder if there are Congressmen or Senators willing to spend on Philippine history…

ellobofilipino:

iwriteasiwrite:

Archaeologists have unearthed remnants of what they believe is a 1,000-year-old village on a jungle-covered mountaintop in the Philippines with limestone coffins of a type never before found in this Southeast Asian nation, officials said Thursday….

The discovery of the rectangular tombs, which were carved into limestone outcrops jutting from the forest ground, is important because it is the first indication that Filipinos at that time practiced a more advanced burial ritual than previously thought and that they used metal tools to carve the coffins.

 - Philippine Tomb Discovery At 1,000-Year-Old Village Show Unexpected Advances

This is some heady archaeological stuff. I mean, just absolutely amazing. I hope this gets a lot of play in our media, this needs to be prominently touted.

Discoveries like this basically rewrite what we understand about our archipelagic history. They are important in uncovering who we are and where we came from. The fact that there were hitherto unknown techniques in use is astonishing. Looking forward to the published study of the find.

The exciting part is, there is much more to be find throughout the country. We are an archaeological treasure trove, we just need the institutional support to explore.

The sad part of the story is the mention that most of our discovered archaeological sites are being destroyed by grave robbers and looters. These sites form an integral part of our national patrimony, they belong to every Filipino and help deepen our understanding of our heritage.

And it’s just fucking cool.

Whoah! All the Philippine history learned through the years will have to be unlearned and updated. I agree, this will radically change our understanding of our past, particularly the pre-Spanish period.

This reminds me of a long discussion back then on what parts of the Philippines might have been before the Spanish expeditions came. Sadly though, I cannot seem to find those exchanges in my archives anymore.

Anyway, like what we agreed on, historical records from our neighboring countries might reinforce knowledge derived from digs like this. But, before the research comes the funding… I wonder if there are Congressmen or Senators willing to spend on Philippine history…

(via pinoy-culture)

Philippines: 51st American state.

pinoy-culture:

akoaykayumanggi:

choco-java:

lakawaiikoala:

ahiddensanctuary:

Curse the commonwealth era. Curse the people who insisted for the Philippines to have it’s freedom. Curse the president who took oath that time.

As you read my introduction, you already knew that I am pro to this issue. Yes, I want the Philippines to be an American Colony. I want the Philippines be part of the stars in the flag of America. I want to be an American citizen. I want to be part of the world’s greatest country. And most of all, I want a better life ahead of me and for me to attain that, I need to embrace to the high hopes that one day the Philippines will eventually be a part of the United States.

Unfollow me if you want to. Say foul words in my ask box if you want to (besides, my anonymous button is always on). But this is my stand. This is, what I believe, for the betterment of our country. I am already sick of reading articles about patriotism and being nationalistic but people keeps on despising or even condemning fellow countrymen if they were subjected to shameful issues. I am already tired of seeing headlines printed in capital letters saying bad things toward this nation. I am already tired of hearing gossips about the fast-rising economy of this country and yet no one in the lower class can feel it.

I want progress. I want change. I want development.

We cannot eliminate corruption because corruption is already part of our system since academe. We are bound to use power to acquire money and other things.

If only we surrendered and let the American people guide us to success, then claiming the islands in our West Philippine Sea would’ve been easier than this.

Oh hey Ligaya~

And I’m tired of people like you, my dear, ahiddensanctuary.^^

Oh thank you Tine for showing me this bullshit. *salutes*

Ok ahiddensanctuary I’m going to break this down for ya, you colonial minded, undeserving to be called Filipin@ twat. If our ancestors were alive today, they would have cut off your head with no shame in your disgrace.

Curse the commonwealth era. Curse the people who insisted for the Philippines to have it’s freedom. Curse the president who took oath that time.

I’m sorry. You don’t know about our colonial history do you? DO YOU? You do not know about what the U.S. did to our people when they colonized do you? Let’s see let me make a list of all the shit they did to us in their 48 years of colonial rule. Shall we? Ya? Ok let’s go.

The Example of Samar: A “Howling Wilderness”

Early in the morning on September 28, 1901 the residents of the small village of Balangiga (located in the Samar Province) attacked the men of U.S. Army Company C, Ninth U.S. Infantry, who were stationed in the area.  While the Americans ate breakfast, church bells in the town began to peal.  This was the signal for hundreds of Filipinos armed with machetes and bolos to attack the garrison.  Forty-eight U.S. soldiers, two-thirds of the garrison, were butchered, in what is called the Balangiga Massacre.  Of the Filipinos who attacked, as many as 150 were killed.

American troops began retaliating as soon as the next day by returning to Balangiga in force and burning the now abandoned village.  General Jacob H. Smith, however, sought to punish the entire civilian population of the Samar province.  Arriving in Samar himself toward the end of October, Smith charged Major Littleton Waller with responsibility for punishing the inhabitants of Samar.  Smith issued Waller oral instructions concerning his duties.  These were recounted as follows (see below) in Smith and Waller’s court martial proceedings the following year in 1902.  These proceedings, indeed attention to the entire matter of U.S. Army conduct in the Philippines, were driven by the appearance of an interview with General Smith in the Manila Times on November 4, 1901.  During this interview, Smith confirmed that these had truly been his orders to Major Waller.

”’I want no prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn: the more you kill and burn, the better you will please me,’ and, further, that he wanted all persons killed who were capable of bearing arms and in actual hostilities against the United States, and did, in reply to a question by Major Waller asking for an age limit, designate the limit as ten years of age. … General Smith did give instructions to Major Waller to ‘kill and burn’ and ‘make Samar a howling wilderness,’ and he admits that he wanted everybody killed capable of bearing arms, and that he did specify all over ten years of age, as the Samar boys of that age were equally as dangerous as their elders.”

Smith carried out his mission by having U.S. troops concentrate the local population into camps and towns.  Areas outside of these camps and towns were designated “dead zones” in which those who were found would be considered insurgents and summarily executed.  Tens of thousands of people were herded into these concentration camps.  Disease was the biggest killer in the camps, although precisely how many lives were lost during Smith’s pacification operations is not known.  For his part, Major Waller reported that over eleven days between the end of October and the middle of November 1901 his men burned 255 dwellings and killed 39 people.  Other officers under Smith’s command reported similar figures.  Concerning the overall number of dead, one scholar estimates that 8,344 people perished between January and April 1902.

The Balangiga bells are still held after being taken, in the U.S. at  to commemorate those U.S. soldiers lost in this battle despite our many attempts of gaining them back to where they rightfully belong.

The Pacification of the Philippines

At the outset of the fighting, American troops in the Philippines numbered around 40,000, but by 1902 this number had risen to 126,000.  During the first phase of the war, Aguinaldo’s men fought and lost a succession of formal battles against the U.S. Army.  In 1900, however, Aguinaldo abandoned head-on conflicts with the Americans and resorted to the guerrilla warfare tactics that had served him and his men so well against the Spanish.

For all the talk of bringing “civilization” to the Philippines, American commanders responded to the Filipino “insurgency” with the utmost brutality.  Over the course of the next decade, and especially in the first few years of the conflict, it became commonplace for entire villages to be burned and whole populations to be imprisoned in concentration camps.  No mercy was accorded to Filipino prisoner, a large number of whom were shot.  This certainly was not in keeping with the spirit of “benevolent assimilation” proclaimed by President McKinley.

From Liberators to Killers: American Attitudes Toward Filipinos

The attitudes of American commanders involved in pacifying the Philippines are remarkable for both their disdain for the people they had allegedly “liberated” and their willingness to resort to the most ruthless methods in suppressing resistance. For example, General J.M. Bell, wrote in December 1901:

“I am now assembling in the neighborhood of 2,500 men who will be used in columns of about fifty men each.  I take so large a command for the purpose of thoroughly searching each ravine, valley and mountain peak for insurgents and for food, expecting to destroy everything I find outside of towns.  All able bodied men will be killed or captured. … These people need a thrashing to teach them some good common sense; and they should have it for the good of all concerned.”

Filipino villagers were forced into concentration camps called reconcentrados which were surrounded by free-fire zones, or in other words “dead zones.” Furthermore, these camps were overcrowded and filled with disease, causing the death rate to be extremely high. Conditions in these “reconcentrados” were inhumane. Between January and April 1902, 8,350 prisoners of approximately 298,000 died. Some camps incurred death rates as high as 20 percent. “One camp was two miles by one mile (3.2 by 1.6 km) in area and ‘home’ to some 8,000 Filipinos. Men were rounded up for questioning, tortured, and summarily executed.”

Do you want me to go on even more? Because I could, oh I could and make an even longer rant and call out your colonial bullshit. Or are you that desperate to have us as a 51st state and don’t give a shit on our recent past and what would happen if we became a state and colonized by the U.S. again? And if that is the case, don’t call yourself a Filipin@ because you aren’t one and our ancestors have disowned you a long time ago.

As you read my introduction, you already knew that I am pro to this issue. Yes, I want the Philippines to be an American Colony.

Ya, sure. Ok. Let’s make it so our people lose land like Hawai’ians currently are. Let’s make it so white tourists take our land and pollute it, disrespect it, call it THEIRS. Let’s go back to their colonization of Filipina’s being made as prostitutes for the U.S. military. Let us go back to people dying and being raped by those white foreigners who will take our lands. Yes LETS. Want to know what has happened to the Hawai’ians since they were illegally made to be the 50th state? Ok here are some more links for ya to know HOW they became an illegal state until this very day, how it’s their colonization has effected them, and how many want to be free from the U.S. to be their own nation.

I want the Philippines be part of the stars in the flag of America. I want to be an American citizen. I want to be part of the world’s greatest country.

I’m sorry? The U.S. is the greatest fuckin’ country in the world? Hahahahahahahahahahahahahaha. Ya. Fuckin’ right. Look here, I’m a U.S. citizen by birth. I was born here to immigrant Filipin@ parents. I was raised here. I live here. It ain’t all pretty sparkles, rainbows, wealth and glory trust me. And here is a newflash for ya. The U.S. is starting to come to its end of a powerful country, just like the U.K. did and Spain did in the past. Get that U.S. is a hero and the best in the world mentality out of your thick fuckin head.

And most of all, I want a better life ahead of me and for me to attain that, I need to embrace to the high hopes that one day the Philippines will eventually be a part of the United States.

You want a better life ahead of you? Really? Because *looks around* you aren’t going to find here, sorry. You want a better life? WORK FOR IT. Have faith in our damn country and do whatever it takes to improve it. Get educated on our past. Get educated on our cultures. Get educated on what is happening in the Philippines in terms of politics and social issues. And from that do something about it. Those who come to the U.S. to study, go back to the Philippines and take back what you learned and use it to help improve the country. Stop buying into all what the media says and lies. Look at South Korea for example. South Korea was one of the most impoverished countries only several years ago and looked up to the Philippines at one point. The people got motivated, worked hard, and got themselves out of that poverty fairly quickly and now look at them now. They believed in themselves and country. They sent their people to the U.S. and elsewhere to get a better education than they can give them in the country at that time and they returned back to help their people and country to the point they became the most fast growing country in terms of economy and wealth. You want the Philippines to get out of its poverty state? Take example of what South Korea did and take pride in your people, your country, and WORK HARD FOR IT.

Do you know how much I want to go back to the Philippines so I can do the same? A Filipina born in New York City, one of the greatest and well known cities in the world, and I want to leave it all. I want to live and work and stay in the Philippines and help improve it and the lives of my people in anyway I can. Why? Because I have faith in my homeland and people and THAT is something a lot of Filipin@’s like you, lack.

But this is my stand. This is, what I believe, for the betterment of our country. I am already sick of reading articles about patriotism and being nationalistic but people keeps on despising or even condemning fellow countrymen if they were subjected to shameful issues.

Again for the betterment of our country. Ok righttt. Nahh, because majority of the people are being patriotic and nationalistic for the wrong reasons, because the majority, like you, have no clue what to be nationalistic on. There are however a lot who are and that gives me hope that these people will start doing something and waking everybody else up like I try to do.

I am already tired of seeing headlines printed in capital letters saying bad things toward this nation. I am already tired of hearing gossips about the fast-rising economy of this country and yet no one in the lower class can feel it.

Again, DO something about it. Talk about it. Fight for it. What do you think all those who fight for our people and country do? What do you think of all those militant groups like Bayan and Anakbayan do every single day? Sleep? Nah, they do what they do because they are fighting for our country and people but all the media does is claim them as rebels and trouble makers because the media is influenced by the elite again anyway. Want to break that down? Fight for it. Fight for our struggles and help educate others on issues and speaking out on the lies the media and people of power spit right back to the people.

We cannot eliminate corruption because corruption is already part of our system since academe. We are bound to use power to acquire money and other things.

If only we surrendered and let the American people guide us to success, then claiming the islands in our West Philippine Sea would’ve been easier than this.

Then stop voting for corrupt politicians and again fight and help wake up those who are so brainwashed and fuckin colonized. Take them down and stop buying into what the media says and again fight.

And if we let the U.S. people “guide us to success”, we would just be where Native Americans and Hawai’ians stand today. Losing lands, losing jobs, being discriminated against, being seen as nothing more than “the little brown people of Asia”, losing our languages and cultures, people missing and raped left and right and the government not doing a thing.

So here is my message for ya and a little gif to explain my feelings for you, and every other damn fuckin person who wants the Philippines to be the fuckin 51st state.

My rant on my personal blog because sadly, these people exist and do want the Philippines to be the 51st American state and be a colony again. I haven’t put up any info on the U.S. colonization of the Philippines and their atrocities and the genocide of Filipin@’s yet on this blog, but those links above and what I put down I think will be enough for now.

(via green-street-politics)

(Source: Flickr / redfiremg, via pinoy-culture)

pinoy-culture:

Pre-Colonial Traditional Clothing
(Note: Though this is mainly about the clothing in the Visaya’s, they were also found in other parts of the Philippines like the Tagalogs with the same name, unless otherwise stated in the post.)

Visayan clothing varied according to cost and current fashions and so indicated social standing. The basic garments were the G-string and the tube skirt—what the Maranao call malong—or a light blanket wrapped around instead. But more prestigious clothes, lihin-lihin, were added for public appearances and especially on formal occasions—blouses and tunics, loose smocks with sleeves, capes, or ankle-length robes. The textiles of which they were made were similarly varied. In ascending order of value, they were abaca, abaca decorated with colored cotton thread, cotton, cotton decorated with silk thread, silk, imported printstuff, and an elegant abaca woven of selected fibers almost as thin as silk. In addition, Pigafetta mentioned both G-strings and skirts of bark cloth.

The G-string, (bahag) was a piece of cloth 4 or 5 meters long and something less than a meter wide: it was therefore much larger than those worn in Zambales and the Cagayan Valley, or by Cordillera mountaineers today. The ends hanging down were called wayawayampis in front and pakawar behind—and were usually decorated. Binkisi was an expensive one with fancywork called gowat,  and if it had a fringe of three-strand lubid cords, it was lubitan. G-strings were of the natural color of the cloth. However, in the case of men who had personally killed an enemy, they were qualified to wear deep red ones.

To put the G-string on, one end was held against the chest while the other was passed between the legs, pulled up between the buttocks and wrapped around the waist several times, thereby binding the front flap which was then allowed to hang down as ampis; the other end was then knotted behind and let fall as pakawar. Care was taken to see that one of the wayaway was longer than the other: wearing both equal length was considered ludicrous. The word watid was for a G-string dragging on the ground, a deliberate sign of mourning.

Because its size permitted the bahag to be spread out to cover the entire hip, many observers thought it was a kind of kilt from the waist to the knees. And because of its bulk, men removed it in the privacy of their home: Sanchez (1617, 45) illustrated with the sentence, “Magbahag kita ay magatubang sa Padre [Let’s put on our G-strings in front of the Father].”

Men also wore a blanket or another length of cloth as clothing. Singal was to put one on like a G-string; and tampi was simply to wrap it around the hips, tied with a knot in front, and not passed between the legs. Alampay meant to wrap anything around the shoulders or over the head like a cape, including G-strings which were then given fewer turns around the waist to allow it to extend over the shoulder or head. To lend greater dignity to a formal occasion, an ankle-length garment called saob-saob was worn, with or without sleeves but open down the front like a cloak. Rajah Humabon put on a silk one at Magellan’s request to take his oath of vassalage to the Spanish king.

There seems to have been no Visayan term for the long-sleeved gowns depicted in the Boxer Code, with the fine Pintado ankles just peeping out at the bottom—nor for those tight-sleeved tunics the Tagalogs called baro. Perhaps this can be explained by the fact that these pictures were painted twenty-five years after Spanish advent. However, though references from whatever source were and have been made to such cloths, these togalike garb could not have been the ordinary Visayan costume. All royal Datu’s who had dealings with early Spanish commanders were clothed only in tattoo’s and g-strings—Kolambu of Limasawa, Awi of Butuan, Katuna of Bohol, and Tupas of Cebu. Bare chested exposure to the elements was a matter of masculine pride, and even a century later, men’s jackets had still not caught on. Writing in 1668, Father Alcina said,

They rarely used the tunics, or baros; what was common for going out and for working was the bahag only, except for old men who would cover up with the baros against the cold or extreme heat, or the flies and mosquitoes that would bit them (Alcina 1668a, 1:49)

The tube skirt was described by Juan de la Isla in Cebu in 1565 as follows:

The clothes which they wear are a piece of material closed like a sack or sleeve with two very wide mouths, and they make many pleats of the extra width on the left side, and making a knot of the cloth itself, let the folds fall on the left, and although it does not go above their waist, with a tight blouse most of the body and legs are clothed (Isla 1565, 235).

This was the lambong, and because it could also be fastened under the armpits or over the shoulder, or even around the head, the Spaniards called it a sayo (smock or coat) rather than saya (skirt). The same term was extended to include any garment tailored to the body, like the sinulog (i.e: Sulu-style) or sinina (Chinese), a short jacket which exposed the midriff—and more, Father Sanchez observed, when they raised their arms. This sinina could have originated in Indonesia or Malaysia, since the Visayans called foreigners Sina before the coming of the Europeans.

Untailored clothes, however had no particular names. Pandong, a lady’s cloak, simply meant any natural covering, like the growth on banana trunk’s or a natal caul. In Panay, the word kurong, meaning curly hair, was applied to any short skirt or blouse; and some better ones made of imported chintz or calico were simply called by the name of the cloth itself, tabas. So, too, the wraparound skirt the Tagalogs called tapis was hardly considered a skirt at all: Visayans just called it habul (woven stuff) or halong (abaca) or even hulun (sash). Father Sanchez (1617, 54v) shared their assessment: he defined balikuskus as

the knot which women make in their blankets when they wrap it around instead of a real skirt like those they more decently wear in these parts; if it is from Panay, Pampanga, or the Tagalogs, it is really indecent.

Open gowns or cloaks were closed in front by cords or gold gansing, a kind of hook-and-eye or button, at the throat; or a hulun sash, whence the waist or private parts were called ginhunlan. Imported textiles included fine white kayo from China and a thin red cotton from Borneo called kalasumba. High-quality local abaca or cotton was woven with alternating colored stripes (liray), sometimes of silk, or in squares (sokat) like alemaniscos (German stuff). Humabon’s queen walked in procession all in black and white, with a gold-striped silk scarf over her head, hat, and shoulders.

Good lambong, blankets, or other clothes had decorative strips added to the edges and ends. Salukap was a checkered design, and potak, little rosettes, while luray were separately woven strips that looked like a banister of many colors. Datus and their ladies were distinguished by exquisite luray on all four sides called libot, a circuit, such as that which the sun appears to make around the earth, kalibutan.

The usual male headdress was the pudong, a turban, though in Panay both men and women also wore a head cloth or bandana called potlong or saplung. Commoners wore pudong of rough abaca cloth wrapped around only a few turns so that it was more of a headband than a turban and was therefore called pudong-pudong—as the crowns and diadems on Christian images were later called. A red pudong was called magalong, and was the insignia of braves who had killed an enemy. The most prestigious kind of pudong, limited to the most valiant, was, like their G-strings, made of pinayusan, a gauze-thin abaca of fibers selected for their whiteness, tie-dyed a deep scarlet in patterns as fine as embroidery, and burnished to a silky sheen. Such pudong were lengthened with each additional feat of valor: real heroes therefore let one end hang loose with affected carelessness.

Women generally wore a kerchief, called tubatub if it was pulled tight over the whole head; but they also had a broad-brimmed hat called sayap or tarindak, woven of sago-palm leaves. Some were evidently signs of rank: when Humabon’s queen went to hear mass during Magellan’s visit, she was preceded by three girls carrying one of her hats. A headdress from Cebu with a deep crown, used by both sexes for travel on foot or by boat, was called sarok, which actually meant to go for water.

Source: Barangay: 16th Century Philippine Culture and Society by William Henry Scott

(Source: Flickr / katherinecalnan, via pinoy-culture)

pinoy-culture:

Ironworking in Pre-colonial Philippines
Blacksmiths were panday—or, more accurately, panday sa puthaw, workers in iron, to distinguish them from other craftsmen like goldsmiths, master carpenters, and boat builders, all of whom were called panday. Smithing was considered the noblest profession, probably because only the wealthiest Datu’s had the means to import the raw material. If they were indeed the ultimate source of all metal tools, including the swidden farmers’ bolos, they would have exercised effective control over Visayan means of production. As Father Alcina (1668a, 3:105) said, “it is certain that no profession among the Visayans is more profitable than this, and so it is the most honored and esteemed among them, since the greatest chiefs are the best iron-workers.”
Iron itself had actually been produced in the Philippines in ancient times. Iron slag has been recovered in considerable quantities from archaeological sites, including Visayan graves, and slag is normally a waste product of iron smelting and refining. But to extract the metal from the ore by primitive methods is very difficulte, and so is the transportation of the ore. Thus it is generally more economical to trade local forest products for malleable cast iron if available, and it was available at least by the thirteenth century. Bornean refineries were then producing it in large quantities in Santubong (Sarawak), and Song traders were delivering big Chinese cauldrons and pig iron direct. By the 16th century, iron was also being produced in Sulawesi, but was still so rare and valuable that when the Santa Maria del Parral ran aground in Sangir in 1526, the natives burned her to recover the nails. In the Visayas, those Chinse cauldrons remained the major source: they were deliberately broken p to supply local forges.
The bellows of the forge (hasohas) were two upright cylinders (tayhop) about a meter high, hollowed out of small tree trunks, with pistons (tamborok) ringed with chicken feathers set so as to collapse on the return stroke. They were alternately raised and lowered by the blacksmith’s apprentice (masaop) to produced a steady draft. Both cylinders had a bamboo outlet near the bottom which led to a common stone receptacle (liling) which concentrated their draft into a charcoal fire. The anvil (landasan) was a piece of iron set in a heavy wooden block, and the smith’s tools were a two-handed stone maul (palo), a stone hammer (palo-palo), a pair of tongs (kipit), and an assortment of ordinary bolos for cutting the red-hot metal.
The most important tool manufactured, repaired, or retempered by the blacksmith was the bolo. Dohong or dayopak was the ordinary one; tuwad, a heavier one for woodcutting; bako or bantok, one with a curved blade for weeding or cultivating; and pisaw, one with a short blade and long handle to be hands free for stripping rattan. The blade had a tang for hafting into the wooden handle, and was held firm with resinous sap and a ring of rattan or metal. The head of the ax (wasay) was also hafted into the handle; it was only about two fingers wide and could be rotated a quearter turn to be used as an adze.
More specialized tools included those in the list below.

Abluwang - Drill, awlBatakan - A blade for slicing korotBarit - A rough piece of iron for whetting tools or striking with flint for rie.Binkong - Curved adzeBisong - Small knife for preparing betel nutDallag - Straight adzeGarol - Spurs for fighting chickens.Kalob - spoon bitSabit or sared - Billhook or hoeSalat - SickleSipol - Paring knifeSanggul - Tuba tapper’s knife for “gelding” the budsTigib - ChiselTirlos - Lancet for bleedingUlok - Dentist’s awl

Two carpenter’s tools which later became common were apparently missing from the 16th Century Visayan tool kit—the saw (lagari) and the plane (saiyo).
Source: Barangay: 16th Century Philippines Culture and Society by William Henry Scott.

pinoy-culture:

Ironworking in Pre-colonial Philippines

Blacksmiths were panday—or, more accurately, panday sa puthaw, workers in iron, to distinguish them from other craftsmen like goldsmiths, master carpenters, and boat builders, all of whom were called panday. Smithing was considered the noblest profession, probably because only the wealthiest Datu’s had the means to import the raw material. If they were indeed the ultimate source of all metal tools, including the swidden farmers’ bolos, they would have exercised effective control over Visayan means of production. As Father Alcina (1668a, 3:105) said, “it is certain that no profession among the Visayans is more profitable than this, and so it is the most honored and esteemed among them, since the greatest chiefs are the best iron-workers.”

Iron itself had actually been produced in the Philippines in ancient times. Iron slag has been recovered in considerable quantities from archaeological sites, including Visayan graves, and slag is normally a waste product of iron smelting and refining. But to extract the metal from the ore by primitive methods is very difficulte, and so is the transportation of the ore. Thus it is generally more economical to trade local forest products for malleable cast iron if available, and it was available at least by the thirteenth century. Bornean refineries were then producing it in large quantities in Santubong (Sarawak), and Song traders were delivering big Chinese cauldrons and pig iron direct. By the 16th century, iron was also being produced in Sulawesi, but was still so rare and valuable that when the Santa Maria del Parral ran aground in Sangir in 1526, the natives burned her to recover the nails. In the Visayas, those Chinse cauldrons remained the major source: they were deliberately broken p to supply local forges.

The bellows of the forge (hasohas) were two upright cylinders (tayhop) about a meter high, hollowed out of small tree trunks, with pistons (tamborok) ringed with chicken feathers set so as to collapse on the return stroke. They were alternately raised and lowered by the blacksmith’s apprentice (masaop) to produced a steady draft. Both cylinders had a bamboo outlet near the bottom which led to a common stone receptacle (liling) which concentrated their draft into a charcoal fire. The anvil (landasan) was a piece of iron set in a heavy wooden block, and the smith’s tools were a two-handed stone maul (palo), a stone hammer (palo-palo), a pair of tongs (kipit), and an assortment of ordinary bolos for cutting the red-hot metal.

The most important tool manufactured, repaired, or retempered by the blacksmith was the bolo. Dohong or dayopak was the ordinary one; tuwad, a heavier one for woodcutting; bako or bantok, one with a curved blade for weeding or cultivating; and pisaw, one with a short blade and long handle to be hands free for stripping rattan. The blade had a tang for hafting into the wooden handle, and was held firm with resinous sap and a ring of rattan or metal. The head of the ax (wasay) was also hafted into the handle; it was only about two fingers wide and could be rotated a quearter turn to be used as an adze.

More specialized tools included those in the list below.

Abluwang - Drill, awl
Batakan - A blade for slicing korot
Barit - A rough piece of iron for whetting tools or striking with flint for rie.
Binkong - Curved adze
Bisong - Small knife for preparing betel nut
Dallag - Straight adze
Garol - Spurs for fighting chickens.
Kalob - spoon bit
Sabit or sared - Billhook or hoe
Salat - Sickle
Sipol - Paring knife
Sanggul - Tuba tapper’s knife for “gelding” the buds
Tigib - Chisel
Tirlos - Lancet for bleeding
Ulok - Dentist’s awl

Two carpenter’s tools which later became common were apparently missing from the 16th Century Visayan tool kit—the saw (lagari) and the plane (saiyo).

Source: Barangay: 16th Century Philippines Culture and Society by William Henry Scott.

(via pinoy-culture)